This is very nice). London: Sage. It seems important also to know whether or not, why and how males use taboo words more than females in other languages. Johnstone, B.
Federal University Ndufu-Alike, Ikwo, Sola Grace Oluwamusanmi Hartman, M.1976. “The Linguistic Geography of Nigeria and its Implications for Pre-history”. F-Adesewa: Please, mi o wa si school tori party, eyin naa dunju, edara pupo, so elo je gbogbo igbadun (Please, I am not in school because of the party. De Beaugrande, R. 1993. MultiLingual, 8(1): 57-80. This paper is a study of Yoruba discourse, focusing on the differences in the way Yoruba men and women speak in selected Nollywood movies. It is important to note that the differences in the functions of these features, especially question tags and intensifiers, in English and Yoruba are rooted in cross-cultural differences. . Thus it appears that there is very little knowledge about how gender discourse operates in various other languages of the world in form and structure. Curiously, there was little or no empirical data to substantiate some of her viewpoints on genderlect. Taboo words and euphemism refer to prohibited words. From a sociolinguistic perspective, the term genderlect may be described as “the language of both male and female sexes” (Kramer 1977:122). et al. A Comparative Study of Politeness Phenomena in Nigerian English, Yoruba and Ogori. In addition, a Chi-square analysis was done. Hence, a minimal response is used here to show that the listener is actively involved in the conversation and supportive. Camille: Looto, eje ka lo wo ayika (Really, come on then let’s move around). 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Talking Difference On Gender And Language. 1979. Yoyin’s mum: Ile yin rewa o, lai ti wo ayika. Statistical analysis of dyadic social behavior. In other words, their speech variation occurs due to a number of linguistic and non-linguistic factors or variables such as language contact, social context, age, gender and social or educational status of participants/interlocutors. In: Philip Allsworth Jones (ed.) Thus texts are analyzed as also language use ‘above the sentence’ and not only as sentences, sentence elements or a conglomerate of ideas (literary or otherwise) that are generated through sentence elements or structures. ____ 2005. (Should we then conclude that Moji Ajasa is somehow reluctantly dating you?). Nigerian mega praise medley by Shola Temuru titled O Ti Po Ju. This perspective is well-captured by Coulthard (1977) when she states that the largest unit of discourse may overlap with the largest unit of grammatical organization (see Olateju 1988). F: Emm, o da bi mpe mori ninu newspaper nigba pipe (Emm,I think it is a long time I saw him, in the newspaper). These traits may be responsible for the obviously different views which men and women have of the same or similar situation (Tannen 1990:42). Find more Yoruba words at wordhippo.com! It is precisely the element of personal evaluation that makes these expressions lexical hedges and renders the utterance they govern less threatening. M:min mo, odabi eni wipe oo ti sure (I don’t know…it seems you’re not sure yet). How to use oy in a sentence. They are forbidden because they are regarded as immoral or improper. This approach, as described by Keller & Erzberger (2004:174), enables the employment of complementary methods that facilitate a broadened perspective based on an indepth treatment, description and explanation of the subject area. (ed.). The Yoruba speech community is one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Kinti e le ponla (good Lord, look at that ass! Carli, L.L. ____ 2000. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Toke – F:Well,(rerin) iwo nko? In the data, these expressions were regularly used to soften critical comments. Expressions of hesitation. Approaches to Discourse Analysis. Isn’t it? F: Helooo ni bi ooo, ahhhh! Ike anabi niyi o (Your house is really beautiful even though I haven’t been in it. Examples of tag questions are: abi beeko (isn’t it), abi iwo ko (aren’t you), se ohun ko ni (wasn’t it). The analysis of Yoruba discourse in the movies may present clearly a new perspective and understanding of the language, its use as well as its functions.
This may differ in expression and form from culture to culture. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Cobos, M. 2009. London, UK: Longman. These features, as used by women, indicate their submission and unassertiveness. Being male or female also leads to different conversational styles (Tannen 1990:42). Similarly, there have been opposing views regarding (Dubois & Crouch 1975), further evidence that women use phrases that may communicate relative uncertainty. Taboo words are used to stress the masculinity of the speaker, especially in conflict. Labov, W. 1966. We also made use of frequency counts, percentage, chi square analysis and charts. Also, in the movie Oga when Shina Ayo’s mother came to talk with Yoyin’s parents, both female speakers use polite words in their speech to each other. This seems to confirm previous research which shows that women use hedges in ways other than an indication of weakness. Language in Society 4: 289-94. “Functions of ‘you know’ in women’s and men’s speech”. Hedges were used by the female groups (3) thrice and (2) twice by the males while question tag is used (1) once by the male gender. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Euphemisms are used in their place. The most popular explanation given for the obvious differences is that the disparate verbal skills held by males and females are reflections of the disparate conditions of their gender in the society. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 1293-1303.
New York: Oxford University Press. Other features may also need further probing in order to arrive at an enriched understanding of gender differences globally. The findings show significant differences between the gender groups in the use of hedges, intensifiers, minimal responses, taboos and euphemistic or polite words. (I think it is better for me to face it now, isn’t it?). London: Longman. Also, information was gathered online in respect to the comments of viewers and the total number of viewers of these movies. In the application of the X2 distribution, we attempted to test if an observed series of values differs significantly from what was expected. I am not comfortable with the strange behaviour of your friend to me). 1986. Since male and female speakers of a language have different experiences, social roles and personal needs peculiar to their culture, it can only be expected that they develop different strategies and skills of speech to operate within and cope with sociolinguistic and cultural requirements in their society. See more. Fasold, R.W. 1992. M: Honey, igba wo lori Moji last (Honey, when last did you see Moji). The reason for this is that discourse elements cannot be studied in isolation because of their peculiar feature of being dependent on context for their interpretation. The most popular explanation given for these differences is that the disparate verbal skills held by males and females are reflections of the disparate conditions of the genders in society. What this means, in practice, is that all the hedges in this category limit the scope of the utterance and thus soften the content of a critical comment. It is clear that these words were not only used to make a specific semantic relationship fuzzier but also to make the relationship between the speaker and the content of his/her utterance fuzzier. (big ass, so loaded, wow!). “The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich”. Tag questions are used by both male and female characters in the movies to perform the following functions: Well, inu mi ndun bakan sa. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know what languages these words come from? Bayo – M: O mo pe, emi o fe si idi mi sita (You know that I don’t want my secret exposed). Oy definition is - —used especially to express exasperation or dismay. This classification enables us to analyse the lexical hedges more effectively by comparing differences between males and females. An MRI term for the time between the initial (inverting) 180° pulse and the 90° pulse used in inversion recovery pulse sequences. They involve brief feedback or comments provided by listeners during the conversation interaction (Hmmmm, ehennn, hunnn). Leitch, V. B. The fact that the whole utterance starts with the speaker marking the following speech as his or her personal evaluation of some sort is certainly important for softening his critical comment.
Language and Sexual Politics.
This paper offers an analysis of gender discourse of Yoruba male and female movie characters. 1977). Isn’t it?). Talking Difference: On Gender and Language. F: ori, mo guess pe on ti mi ni (you see, I guess you are joking). O ga o, o ma nya mi lenun bi awon obirin ti se ma nfe iru eniyan bayi. F-Friends: Woo, Adesewa, so mo pe hot cake ni e, irun ori e beautiful, shape wa lovely gan pelu beauty e. kodemawo je ki oruko e koro e now (see, Adesewa, you know you are a hot cake, your hair is beautiful and your physique is lovely, allow your name to influence you now)(Her name, Adesewa literaly means beauty queen). Some people believe that talking properly is considered a part of their personality and associated with their femininity. 6.1. Aitchison, J. This result shows that there is a significant difference in the usage of these variables by the male and female characters. This feature (or technique) seems to corroborate Coates’s finding that since minimal responses are well placed in the conversations, they do not cause any interruption (Coates 2004: 129). London: SAGE, Open University Press. F: sugbon, emi nro bakan pe kin bere funranlowo won. F: Hhhhmm, boya …. Similarly, the view that women use more hedges because of their reluctance to force their views on others appears to support Lakoff’s claim that women are more likely than men, in the same situation, to use extra-polite forms such as, “Would you mind…”. The Chi – square analysis reveals that men and women use these features differently as the 6 cells (100.05) have expected frequencies less than 5 while the minimum expected cell frequency is 1.0. Hymes, D. 1964. Obviously, some of these features have been discussed from the point of view of the native speakers of English language but it appears that much has not been done from the context of non-native speakers of the English language. Bayo – M: Moro wipe tin base bayi, odara. Language in Society 15 (1): 1-21. I guess am the best for him. “When Difference Is Dominance: A Critique of the Anti-Power-Based Cultural Approach to Gender Differences”.
London: Allen & Unwin. Canada: Wadsworth. Generally, intensifiers are used by females and males in these movies while polite words are mainly used by females. Language, Culture and Communication: The Meaning of Messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 5: 81-101. Uchida, A. were used in the movies. Tables 1a and 1b show the frequency and percentage of the occurrences of these linguistic variables in the data. Crawford, M. 1995.
7th ed. ____ 1990 . This illustrates how female characters use polite words (or euphemisms) and intensifiers as devices to make sure they do not threaten their interlocutor’s status, role or face, thereby keeping good social relationships regardless of whether or not the relationship will continue in the future. Intensifiers tend to be similar in form and structure in Yoruba and English. (Well (laugh)….what about you?). Recent research tends to depict the existence of differences between men and women’s language use as one of the principal issues of sociolinguistics (Crawford 1995).
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